1. What are enzymes?
Enzymes are ubiquitous. They are proteins, nothing different from those from our daily food like meat and egg in nature. We live on enzymes, and so do all other living organisms. Enzymes are different from normal proteins in that they are biocatalyst essential to all metabolic processes taking place in all living organisms.

2. How do enzymes work?
Like all other catalysts, enzymes promote reactions in a way to allow the reactions to take place in a much milder condition and greatly increase the efficiency. Enzymes are specific. In other words, one category of enzymes only works on one kind of substance. For example, amylase only attacks starch, and protease only digests proteins.

3. Are enzymes safe?
YES. The use of enzymes can be dated back to thousands of years ago, when our ancestors used natural fermentation to make wine. It’s the enzymes in microorganisms that were working. Today’s industrial enzymes are produced by modern biotechnology, where production strains have been strictly evaluated for their safety, and production processes are very carefully controlled to ensure the safe use of enzymes.

4. Do enzymes have any threat to the environment?
NO. As said, enzymes are protein and biodegradable. On the contrary, enzymes are ecofriendly solutions since their uses lead to great reduction in energy consumption and much less waste discharge. Even enzymes have been successfully developed to address environmental concerns.

5. What are the environmental benefits for using enzymes?
Enzymes bring lots of environmental benefits. A few examples are as follows:
•Replace harmful chemicals: substitute acids, alkali or oxidizing agents in fabric de-sizing; Use enzymes in the tanneries to reduce the use of sulfide
•Reduce environmental load: Enzymes used in feed help animals with better digestion and nutrient absorption, making better use of feed while reducing organic substance in manure.
•Reduce energy consumption: Enzymes allow laundry to be done at lower temperature with more efficient cleaning saving electricity consumption.
•Waste water treatment: enzymes are being used for waste water treatment directly contributing to environment protection.
It’s a proven fact that the use of enzymes reduces appreciable amount of CO2 emission.

6. How are enzymes produced in a manufacturing process?
A microorganism producing the enzyme of interest was originally identified in nature. The microorganism for industrial production of enzyme, or production strain, is carefully selected based on its safety and economy. When necessary, the microorganism is bred in lab either by traditional technology or modern biotechnology to improve its production performance. The strain is finally inoculated into well contained fermentation vessels for enzyme production under optimized condition. Thereafter, the enzymes are purified and formulated into final product for their best performance.

 7. Are enzymes living organisms?
No. Enzymes are protein extracted from microorganisms that are not live. They are only protein having catalytic capability and will never grow.

8. What types of enzymes are there?
By the context of application enzymes are often categorized according to the compounds they act upon. Some of the most common enzymes include proteases which break down protein; cellulases which break down cellulose; lipases which split fats into glycerol and fatty acids, and amylases which break down starch into simple sugars.

9. What are some industrial enzymatic applications?
Detergent pioneered the industrial use of enzymes. Detergent enzymes are selected based on stain composition and their compatibility with other cleaning agents. For example, protease (protein degrading enzyme) and lipase (fat degrading enzyme) are incorporated into detergent powder to help remove protein and lipid stains. Often alkali resistant enzyme complex is used to effectively remove the stains on clothes under washing condition.
Enzymes have been widely used to substitute harmful chemicals in many traditional processes. Textile industry exemplifies well the changes:
Bioscouring: Alkaline pectinase is used for Bio-scouring (purifying) natural cellulosic fibres such as cotton, linen, hemp and blends. It removes pectin and other impurities from cotton fibres without any damages to cellulose. Traditionally this was done with very caustic chemicals that would also attack fibres.
Denim abrasion: small enzyme dosage can replace traditional pumice stones being used in stone-washing of denim to achieve a worn look.
There are far more successful enzymatic applications covering food & baking, brewing, animal feed, alcohol, fruit juice & wine, textile & leather, oil and fats and pulp and paper industries.

10. Why is Sunson committed to biotechnology?
Sunson is a strong believer in bio-solution, thinking it is the future. Today we are faced with many challenges: the growing population against limited natural resources, fast economic development against more environmental pollution, and more and more diversified needs for a better life. Biotechnology will bring sustainable solutions to these dilemmas. Over more than 20 years Sunson has acquired substantial competencies and confidence, and therefore, we are ready to contribute.



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